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Kākāriki

Unfortunately many birds species are now facing extinction, please make yourselves aware of this tragedy that is taking place in our world, because it is in your best interest to do so, we could not possibly survive without them, just remember! If they go then so do we and I for one cannot sit back and let that happen, I owe it to future generations to try to save them. If we just sit back and do nothing, we HUMANS  could also be facing extinction....YOU HAVE BEEN WARNED!!!!! SAVE THEM SAVE US SAVE YOU.

Please be aware that this beautiful Parrot is endangered. Therefore it is in our hands to help in the care protection and conservation of this species and many others.
We cannot sit back and allow this and many other beautiful species to become extinct. Because if we do then we are putting our own species at risk of extinction. Birds play an important roll in the support of our delicate and already depleting ECO system's, therefore it is for the survival of our 
Planet and future generations, that we act now and do something about this before it is to late. Please educate yourselves and find ways to get involved in the rehabilitation programs for all species especially the birds and the bees, BEFORE IT IS TO LATE TO DO ANYTHING. I for one would like to leave my future grandchildren a world where the air they breath is pure and the food they eat is natural and not full of poison, therefore save them save us save you.

I have just come across this blog and found the information very useful therefore I would now like to share it with you

Status in wild
Red-fronted: Vulnerable, due to extensive loss of habitat and greatly decreased numbers.
 
Yellow-fronted: Near-threatened but predator control and habitat recovery could result in improved status.
 
Conservation
Common only several decades ago, numbers of both species have crashed. Now small offshore islands that have been cleared of predators are their only habitats. In 2008 I had the pleasure of watching these birds in the wild, their colours so vibrant as the sun lit up their plumage, and as they flew, close to the ocean, calling their ee-ee-ee contact notes.
 
I was on the island of Tiritiri Matangi in the Hauraki Gulf, not far off the coast of Auckland. My heart soared as I watched them flying, perching and preening. They seemed to me larger and more solid-looking than the captive birds we know. They looked so beautiful with their ruby-red eyes!
 
The story of this population is an interesting one. The island’s 220 hectares were originally covered with forests of native trees. After centuries of Maori occupation and farming by Europeans, hardly any forest had survived and most native birds, including the Kakariki, had gone, their disappearance assisted by introduced cats, stoats and rats.
 
Then the Department of Conservation (DOC) took over the island to try to return it to its native state as an open sanctuary. Hundreds of thousands of trees were planted, mainly by visiting groups, including schools, who volunteered their time. Today there is much forest and abundant native birdlife -- often endearingly fearless in a landscape whose birds once knew no fear because there were no mammalian predators.
 
The Kakarikis on Tiritiri Matangi thrived and currently the population is estimated at about 800 birds. I was shown a site where parakeets roosted low down in a hole in a bank. Perhaps their favourite food is the seeds of the giant flax that are such a prominent feature of the island’s flora.
 
The parakeets have been studied since 2004 by Mexican biologist Luis Ortiz-Catedral as part of his Master’s degree. Using infra-red video cameras he obtained information on how often the chicks were fed by their parents, for example.
 
On May 17 2009 Ortiz-Catedral took part in the translocation of Red-fronted Kakarikis from the much larger island of Little Barrier to the 179-hectare island of Motuihe, also in the Hauraki Gulf. More than 200 conservationists witnessed the release of 31 birds, 16 males and 15 females. They were flown in by helicopter, and released into a glade of native pohutukawa trees, famous for their abundant red blossoms like pom-poms.
 
Some of the Kakarikis had been fitted with tiny transmitters so that their progress could be followed. Sadly, nine others had died in holding aviaries en route. Motuihe had been cleared of predators and this release was part of a three-year project to translocate Red-fronted Kakarikis from Little Barrier. Later there were more releases elsewhere.
 
During the translocation from Little Barrier 54 parakeets were caught and feather samples were collected for molecular screening. In 15 individuals the virus for PBFD (psittacine beak and feather disease) was detected, but only two birds showed external signs of the disease -- abnormal feather formation and/or coloration, loss of feathers and feathers with blood in the quill (haemorrhagic). This was the first positive identification of PBFD in wild endemic New Zealand Parrots. It confirms the risk of the spread of the disease between wild populations.
 
In the Aviary
Extremely active and very inquisitive, Kakarikis are wonderful aviary birds.  Inexpensive and free-breeding, they are very popular -- even more so since various mutations have been available. The aviary must be very secure with double doors because Kakarikis are lightening fast in their reactions, also very friendly and fearless, so escape could happen all too easily.
 
The aviary must be very safe with nothing that is potentially hazardous. Kakarikis are enthusiastic bathers so fresh water in a large shallow container must always be available. Because they are so active and such strong flyers, Kakarikis are best kept in an aviary no less than 4.5m (15ft) in length.   They love to forage so will enjoy life in a large planted aviary, where they can be kept with small softbills and finches.
 
Vocalisations
Their calls are not loud or unattractive thus they are ideal for people with close neighbours who might complain about noisier birds.
 
Breeding
The clutch size is large -- five to nine eggs, which are incubated by the female for 19 days. Young spend about five weeks in the nest.  Kakarikis are such good parents that they are often used as foster parents by breeders of Australian parakeets.
 
Diet
Dry and sprouted seeds should form the basis of the diet. Kakarikis should be offered a good quality parakeet mixture containing some sunflower and safflower, plus sprouted sunflower and mung beans, which can be sprouted together. Millet sprays are enjoyed. They will also eat fruit, such as apple, strawberries and grapes, also sweetcorn, carrot and celery.
 
Wild foods such as seeding grasses and the young leaves of dandelion and smooth sow-thistle are also relished. Cultivated greens such as kale, rocket and spinach will also be eaten -- but they are not fussy and will eat almost any green food which should be fed daily. Eggfood (crumbly consistency) should be offered just before chicks hatch and during the rearing period.
 
Note that Kakarikis have a habit of scratching rapidly with their feet, sometimes scattering the contents of the food dish in all directions.  One breeder overcame this problem by placing food dishes inside much larger containers -- but this would prevent the use of swing  feeders and some feeding shelves.
 
This habit originates from their natural foraging behaviour: they feed on the ground as well as in trees and shrubs. On the ground they scratch in leaf litter, rapidly pushing it aside with their feet in their search for edible items.  In a huge, landscaped aviary at Auckland Zoo, I was fascinated to observe this behaviour.

The three species of kākāriki or New Zealand parakeets are the most common species of parakeet in the genus Cyanoramphus, family Psittacidae. The birds' Māori name, which is the most commonly used, means "small parrot".[1][2] The three species on mainland New Zealand are the yellow-crowned parakeet(Cyanoramphus auriceps), the red-crowned parakeet or red-fronted parakeet (C. novaezelandiae), and the critically endangered Malherbe's parakeet or orange-fronted parakeet[3] (C. malherbi).
Habitat

All above subspecies are native to New Zealand, and have become endangered as a result of habitat destruction following human settlement and nest predation by introduced mammals. Scarce on the mainland, kākāriki have survived well on outlying islands. They are easy to breed but as with all protected native species in New Zealand a licence from the Department of Conservation is required to keep them in captivity.

Mitochondrial DNA analysis has indicated that the orange-fronted parakeet is a separate species and not just a colour variation of the yellow-crowned parakeet. The orange-fronted parakeet is highly endangered, with less than 200 individuals remaining in the North Canterbury region of the South Island. Furthermore, Chatham Island's yellow-crowned parakeet and the red-crowned populations of New CaledoniaNorfolk Island and the subantarctic islands have been determined to be distinct species (Boon et al., 2001).

Aviculture[edit]

The red-crowned parakeets are common in aviculture and they are relatively easy to breed. They will lay 5 to 8 white eggs in a nesting box. A cinnamon colour variety and a pied variety and yellow are available. They are quite fast and enjoy a large area to play and exercise.

References and notes[edit]
  1. Jump up ^ Etymology: From kākā, parrot + riki, small (Maori Dictionary Online). The word is also used to refer to the colour green because of the birds' predominantly green plumage.
  2. Jump up ^ The patches of red on the birds' rumps are, according to legend, the blood of the demigod Tāwhaki (White 1887).
  3. Jump up ^ Not to be confused with Aratinga canicularis a popular aviary bird known as the orange-fronted conure, orange-fronted parakeet or half-moon conure.
  • Boon, W.M.; Kearvell, J.; Daugherty, C. H.; Chambers, G. K. (2001): Molecular systematics and conservation of kakariki (Cyanoramphus spp.). Science for Conservation 176 PDF fulltext
  • Scofield, R. Paul (2005): The supposed Macquarie Island parakeet in the collection of Canterbury Museum. Notornis 52(2): 117-120. PDF fulltext(subscription required)
  • White, John (1887): The Ancient History of the Māori, Vol. 1: 55. Wellington, Government Printer.
External links[edit][[PASTING TABLES IS NOT SUPPORTED]][[PASTING TABLES IS NOT SUPPORTED]]
  • NZBirds.com - Kakariki
  • The Lexicon of Parrots - Red-fronted Parakeet
  • Kakariki.net; A Popular and useful resource with forums on kakariki husbandary, breeding and conservation
  • Kakariki / New Zealand parakeets: conservation revealed: publications

  • further information on the Kakarik 

  • Red-crowned Kakariki Cyanoramphus novaezelandiae
  • Description and sexing: The Red-Crowned Kakriki can be found in the southern and northern islands of New Zealand; some small peninsulas as well as the Auckland Islands. These are the most widely kept of the Kakariki species and are breed in large numbers not surprisingly, several mutations have become established. The Red-crowned Kakariki’s are perfect for inexperienced breeders as they are hardy, easy to manage birds.

     

    Length of male 27 cm average, female is usually slightly smaller, with a smaller beak. Average weight 60 g, female usually slightly lighter. The overall overall feather colour is green. The green has a yellow-green shine on the chest, abdomen and under tail feathers. The forehead and crown are red and there is a red eye line behind the eye. They have a red patch on both sides of the rump. Outer flight feathers are blue-purple. The iris is red, feet grey and the beak is light grey with a black tip.

    Behavior and keeping:

    The Red-crowned Kakariki is reported to have a pleasant disposition. The are slightly more cheeky as the Yellow-crowned Kakariki. They tend to be more tolerant of other birds - provided plenty of space is available for all. In cramped spaces, they can get aggressive and possibly cause injury. These very active birds enjoy being on the ground and scratching the soil, which makes them susceptible to parasites; therefore, regular worming is recommended. Free flying is a must for these activy birds therfore a minimun size of 3 x 1 x 2 m is recomended . They need some protection from winter frost and be aware of cold draft! A heated shelter may in some cases be necessary.

    The diet of these birds is not difficult; a standard mixture will do well. Seeds (millet, canary, sunflower. buckwheat, niger, hemp, safflower, peanuts, sweetcorn, linseed, corn, pinenuts, barley), fruits and vegetables (apples, oranges, kiwi fruits, fresh figs, berries, juniper berries, spinach, carrots), green food (dandelion leaves, cabbage leaves, etc.),

    Try soaking dry figs and juniper berries over night before feeding to soften them.

    Sprouted seeds, softened rusk and egg food should also be offered, particularly during the breeding season (rationed when not breeding).

    Breeding:

    Colony and flock breeding is possible even when breeding. Most of these parakeets are extremely willing to breed and may be sexually mature when they are only five months old. However, it's best to prevent breeding in their first year and also avoid breeding during the winter period.

    Several breedings per year may be possible, but overbreeding may result in poor health. No more than 2 breedings a year should be permitted. The female often starts another clutch before her previous young are independent. The male usually tends to the previous young. The band size is 4,5 mm.

    Mutations:

    Sex-linked mutations:

    Cinnamon, this mutation alters the colour of the eumelanin into brown instead of black. The result is a brownish green bird with brown flights and pink coloured legs and toes. The mask stays unaltered. Typical for this mutation is that all youngsters have red eyes at hatching. The eyes darken to dark brown after about 8 days.

    Recessive mutations:

    Pied, the recessive pied mutation shows an almost completely yellow bird. We might say that this type of pied causes a 95% absence of eumelanin. The colour of the flight feathers, legs, toes and nails can vary from grey till completely dilute. Split birds can be recognised in most cases by a pied spot at the inner side of the thighbone. The picture is showing a Female bird, nice pied all over.

    Bronze fallow, in common it is of a somewhat lighter shade than cinnamon caused by smaller eumelanin granules produced by this mutation. These birds have pink legs and red eyes. The psittacine stays unaffected leaving the mask unaltered. At first sight this bird can be mistaken for a cinnamon, however, the clear red eyes and the paler back of the head indicate the typical fallow mutation. One more tip, because the Fallow has no pupil, the eye appears “more red” and these birds aren’t good in flying because they cannot open or close there pupil, witch make them pretty blind, this is something you have to remember when you place them in your aviary! Do NOT  keep them in the full sun!

    Aqua, in an aqua bird the yellow psittacine is reduced by approximately 50%. Resulting in an bird that is not blue and not green, it is more in between. The red becomes about 50%paler. Unfortunately the feather structure of the aqua birds are very bad, it is like the aqua mutation in the Red-rumped parakeet. Maybe it will be better if selection takes places when breeding with green birds. 

    Pale fallow, almost equal to the bronze fallow but there is some difference. The greyish brown eumelanin content is lesser than in the bronze fallow resulting in a paler coloured fallow. An olive yellowish bird and ruby red eyes. Not only the clear red eyes are typical for this type of fallow but also the greenish shade at the lower abdomen. Legs, toes and nails are pink colored. One more tip, because the Fallow has no pupil, the eye appears “more red” and these birds aren’t good in flying because they cannot open or close their pupil, witch make them pretty blind, this is something you have to remember when you place them in your aviary! Do NOT keep them in the full sun!

    "Lutino” , note, this is a combination (secondary) mutation and not a primary mutation. Cinnamon combined with a Pale fallow bird will result in a pure yellow bird, also called Lutino (it reduces the visible eumelanin completely) the legs are pink colored and, typical for this mutation, red eyes. The color of the rump is red of the mask stays unaltered. Tip, if you want to breed a “Lutino”, start with a combination of Cinnamon male and Pale fallow female, juveniles males of this combination are the birds to keep! because of the sex-linked factor these males will produce combined with a Pale fallow female “Lutino” female juveniles! A true Lutino is not born yet, and if it is born, how would you recognize it as a primary mutation? The only thing I can think about to recognize a lutino is to carefully look at the eyes, a true Lutino would have pupils whereas a Fallow does not have a pupil (Funny thing not?) One more tip, because the Fallow has no pupil, the eye appears “more red” and these birds aren’t good in flying because they cannot open or close there pupil, witch make them pretty blind, this is something you have to remember when you place them in your aviary! Do NOT keep them in the full sun!

    Dominant mutations:

    Dominant Pied,the result is a bird with unpigmented patches or areas. This type of pied can vary from a few pied feathers till an almost complete absence of eumelanin. The mask is smaller in appearance in this mutation. Although these birds have a dominant inheritance, it is hard to say whether there is a clear difference between SF and DF birds or not. The picture is showing a male, dominant pied 

    Grey-green or Misty, recent reports have been made about new mutation, a grey green Red-crowned kakariki. For now we have to do with a photo, most probably this mutation inherits dominant but I am not sure (yet).

  • Käkäriki / New Zealand parakeets
  • Native birds

    Käkäriki, meaning ‘small green parrot’ in Maori, are beautiful forest birds. There are five main species of käkäriki: yellow-crowned parakeet, orange-fronted parakeet, red-crowned parakeet, Forbes parakeet and Antipodes Island parakeet.

    Käkäriki are basically bright green in colour but can be identified by the distinguishing coloured areas on the head (although in the case of the Antipodes Island species, the head is entirely green). The red-crowned parakeet is distinguished by a bright crimson forehead, crown and a streak extending back beyond the eyes. The

    yellow-crowned parakeet has a yellow patch on the head and a red frontal band above the beak, whereas the orange-fronted species has a pale yellow patch on its head with an orange band above the beak. Forbes parakeet looks similar to a yellow-crowned parakeet but is only found on Mangere island in the Chatham group of islands.

    The Antipodes Island parakeet is the largest species, followed by the red-crowned parakeet, which is in turn larger than the yellow-crowned and orange-fronted species.

    The orange-fronted parakeet – long thought to be a colour variation of the yellow-crowned parakeet but now confirmed as a distinct species – is described in more detail on a separate fact sheet.

    Where are they found?

    The yellow-crowned parakeet, although rare, can be found throughout forested areas of the North, South and Stewart Islands as well as the sub-Antarctic Auckland Islands. Yellow-crowned käkäriki prefer tall, unbroken forest and scrub.

    The red-crowned parakeet was widespread throughout the mainland last century but today is very rare on
    the mainland and only common on islands free of mammalian predators. There are a number of other sub-species of red-crowned parakeets that are found on various islands around New Zealand including

    the Chatham Islands, Antipodes Islands, Macquarie Island, Norfolk Island, Lord Howe Island and New Caledonia. The red-crowned prefers to inhabit relatively open spaces in and around forest areas and frequently forages on the ground. It also prefers lower altitudes than the yellow-crowned species.

    The Antipodes Island parakeet occurs only on the Antipodes Islands.

    Red-crowned parakeet J. L. Kendri





African grey parrot

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from African Grey Parrot)
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The African grey parrotgrey parrot or Congo African grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus) is an Old World parrot in the family Psittacidae.

Description[edit]

The African grey parrot is a medium-sized, predominantly grey, black-billed parrot which weighs 400 g, with a length of 33 cm[2] and an average wingspan of 46–52 cm.[3] The tail and undertail coverts are red, in comparison to the maroon of the smaller Timneh parrot. Both sexes appear similar.[2]

The colouration of juveniles is similar to that of adults, however the eye is typically dark grey to black, in comparison to the greyish-yellow eyes of the adult birds. The undertail coverts are also tinged with grey.[2]

African grey parrots are long-lived birds that may live for 40-60 years in captivity, although their mean lifespan in the wild appears to be somewhat shorter at ~23 years.[3]

Distribution and habitat[edit]

The African grey parrot is native to equatorial Africa, including Côte d'IvoireCameroonCongoUgandaKenya and Angola. There is much uncertainty in estimates of global population, which range from 0.6-13 million individuals. The species seems to favour dense forests but can also be found at forest edges and in more open vegetation types (gallery and savannah forests).[1]

Behaviour and ecology[edit]Breeding[edit]

African grey parrots are monogamous breeders which nest in tree cavities. The hen lays 3–5 eggs, which she incubates for 30 days while being fed by her mate. Young leave the nest at the age of 12 weeks. Little is known about the courtship behaviour of this species in the wild.[3]

Food and feeding[edit]

The African grey parrot is primarily a herbivore, feeding on fruit, nuts, leaves, bark and flowers, but may also take insects.[3]

Threats to survival[edit]

Humans are by far the largest threat to wild African grey populations. Between 1994 and 2003, over 359,000 African grey parrots were traded on the international market. Mortality amongst imported birds is high.[4] As a result of the extensive harvest of wild birds, in addition to habitat loss, this species is believed to be undergoing a rapid decline in the wild and has therefore been rated as vulnerable by the IUCN.[1]

Relationship to humans[edit]

The species is common in captivity and is regularly kept by humans as a companion parrot, prized for its ability to mimic human speech, which makes it one of the most popular avian pets.[1] However, it may be prone to behavioural problems due to its sensitive nature.[4]

African Greys are also highly intelligent, having been shown to perform at the cognitive level of a 4-6 year old child in some tasks. Most notably, Dr. Irene Pepperberg's work with Alex the parrot showed his ability to learn over 100 words, differentiating between objects, colors, materials, and shapes. [5]

References[edit]
  1. Jump up to: a b c d Bellamy, D., Boyes, S., Dowsett-Lemaire, F., Gilardi, J., Hall, P., Hart, J., Hart, T., Lindsell, J., Michels, A., Phalan, B., Pomeroy, D. & Rainey, H. (2013). "Psittacus erithacus"IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 30 August 2015.
  2. Jump up to: a b c "Grey Parrot (Psittacus erithacus)". World Parrot Trust. Retrieved 9 April 2014.
  3. Jump up to: a b c d Holman, Rachel. "Psittacus erithacus". Animal Diversity Web. Retrieved 18 March 2014.
  4. Jump up to: a b "Grey Parrot (Psittacus erithacus) – Care In Captivity". World Parrot Trust. Retrieved 10 April 2014.
  5. Jump up ^ Pepperberg, I.M. (2002) The Alex Studies: cognitive and communicative abilities of grey parrots. Harvard University Press.